special education in arab countries: current challenges

Arab countries have undertaken various measures to develop special education programmes and services over the last three decades; nevertheless, major challenges remain regarding the expansion of these programmes and services and improving their quality. "This article provides an update on disability and special education in Arab countries". Reflections on the historical development of special education in Arab societies are briefly presented. Major challenges currently faced by Arab countries in the field of special education are described, and some recommendations for action are offered. (As provided)